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Biography of the Dutch Golden Painter; Johannes Vermeer

Johannes Vermeer

(Dutch: Johannes Vermeer)

1632-1775

Vermeer or Fermier was famous during his lifetime, the most famous Dutch painters of the Baroque period.

He is one of the founders of the golden age of Dutch art in the seventeenth century.

personal life


There is not much information about Fermir’s life. He was born on October 31, 1632 in Delft, the Netherlands. His mother was a silk weaver and his father a pub owner, a combination that was not uncommon in the Netherlands. Vermeer married Catarina Bolens in 1653 and had 15 children, four of whom died in infancy. , He ran a tavern inherited from his father and painted in his spare time. His relationship with his wife was somewhat surprising given the social and religious conditions of the seventeenth century; Because his wife’s family was richer than his own. In addition, Vermeer was a Protestant while his wife was a Catholic. For this reason, Vermeer is thought to have converted to Catholicism. Vermeer and his family lived with Katarina’s mother, who sponsored her work.

Vermeer did not achieve much fame in the relatively short period of his life, and his fame was limited to the city of Delft and its environs. There were two main reasons for this. One is that his paintings and works were bought and maintained by local collectors, and the second reason was that the artist was not generally considered a prolific artist and his artistic output was low.

After the artist’s death, his works were praised by art experts, and his works gradually spread to larger cities such as Amsterdam. In the nineteenth century a number of his works were attributed to other artists such as Hoch, but in 1860 a Parisian art critic named Etienne Joseph published a treatise on Vermeer and his works, making him world-famous, but he did so in a relatively short period of his life. He did not achieve much fame, and his fame was limited to the city of Delft and its environs. Thirty-seven works, most likely from Vermeer, were discovered, and it was on this basis that Vermeer became famous.

He did not paint more than 45 paintings until the end of his life, and that was probably why he was not in a good financial position. Eventually, on December 15, 1675, he passed away, leaving his wife and 11 children in debt.

Painting style


The influence of this great painter’s art is present in all generations and periods and is constantly increasing. Vermeer masterfully depicts nature, and in the meantime uses a masterful order and harmony in the creation of these works.

He has seldom created a work that is relevant to that particular time. Farmer’s calm and perfectly balanced paintings show a world that is so calm that it seems lifeless. Most of her paintings depict a female character doing something slowly, such as making a net, reading a book, pouring milk, or playing the flute. In some of his paintings, two faces appear in this intimate world, and their relationship is portrayed completely silently, as if the whole world is under the spell of silence. The composition of Formier’s works seems very simple, but in fact it is poured with a certain precision and complexity. In each work, a detailed analysis shows that the entire screen is filled with interconnected rectangles, and their volume is filled with silver lights entering them from around. The world has been transformed into a geometric pattern by Vermeer and is filled by inhabitants who seem to be inanimate objects. He used soft plates, mostly filled with light blue, gold, and red.

A girl with pearl earrings


This work with the oil painting technique alone is one of the firm foundations of the “Golden Age of Art” in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century.

Most of Vermeer’s works were portraits of the ordinary and bourgeois class in the course of work or daily life. And time is not modeled in symbolism. Another point that has been shrouded in mystery for almost 300 years is the young girl herself, who looks back from behind her shoulder. Against a dark, ambiguous background and with an unusual cover, this young girl does not fit into any predetermined environment.

The speculations for identifying this girl are very wide and all of them remain speculative due to the lack of special features in the face, clothes or even the environment.

These include Maria Vermeer (Johannes ‘eldest daughter), Medellina van Roijon (Johannes’ friend and supporter, Peter van Roijon) and the anonymous model who worked as a waitress at Vermeer’s house. Apart from all these interpretations, this work is one of the few works that has inspired many writers, painters and filmmakers in the centuries since its formation.

This work has been kept in the Mauritshuis Museum in The Hague since 1902 and has undergone several restorations. In 2006, the people of the Netherlands chose it as the most beautiful painting in the Netherlands.

Soldier and smiling girl


Another oil painting, painted between 1655 and 1660, is now housed in the New York Frick Collection.

This painting has a number of familiar components of Fermir’s works; The yellow dress on the girl’s body as the main subject, the light shining into the space from the left window, and the pattern hanging on the wall are all more or less seen in some of Fermir’s other works, although the way of depicting the man behind the desk differs slightly from them. Created. Art historians consider a painting by Gerard von Honhurst to inspire this different composition from Fermier; He is also believed to have used a dark-camera technique to create perspective.

Delft perspective


This oil painting from the birthplace of the Dutch painter is one of his famous works and was drawn at a time when painting from the city landscape was not common. Vermeer’s work next to the small street and dilapidated houses in Delft is one of his three famous paintings from Delft. The painter’s use of punctuation in this work, the date of drawing the small street and the absence of the bell in the tower of the new church, limit the date of the painting to between 1660 and 1661. The view that Fermier has taken from Delft since the founding of the Maeritschweiss Museum in 1822 is housed in the Dutch Royal Family Painting Room in The Hague.

In the novel In Search of Lost Time, Marcel Proust praises Vermeer and says of the work: “Ever since I saw Delft’s view in the Hague Museum, I have realized that I have seen the most beautiful painting in the world.”

Milking woman


The oil painting on canvas by Johannes Vermeer was painted between 1657 and 1658 and is now housed in the Imperial Museum in Amsterdam.

In creating the Shower Woman, he has reached such a height of the glory of showing a simple home scene that this painting has been considered one of the greatest works of art of all time. This work brings together the hallmarks of Vermeer’s best works.

The location of the panel is more like an abandoned storage room than a kitchen. Some have dubbed it the Cold Kitchen, which apparently used to prepare uncooked food in the Netherlands at the time. The artist’s attention to detail depicts the details of this place to make the work look real and tangible to the audience.

Here are some of the works of this golden artist:

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